بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
اللهم صل على محمد ، وعلى آل محمد وبارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد ، كما صليت ، وباركت على إبراهيم وآل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد.
In this lesson a brief introduction about the laws of inheritance, prophet(sas)’s Hadeeth and the Quranic verses are taught.
Learn the Quranic verses by heart and learn the meaning.
It is the only one perfect system of property distribution in the world. No doubt it is from the Creator who knows the best.
In spite of this it is the one which is most neglected by the Muslims.
Property division after a person’s death involves the property and the wealth of the person died. Rules have been laid down in Quran and by Prophet’s sunnah.
It is very important to distribute the property as per sharia laws in Islam. Punishment for not adhering to rules in property division are grave and serious. At the end of the rules of inheritance verses in surah Al-nisaa Quran says “ these are the limits set by Allah. Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted to paradise….And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, and transgresses His limits will be made to enter into Hell Fire, permanently and he shall have a disgraceful torment.”
Punishment for not abiding the rules.
As mentioned earlier it is permanent Hell Fire. As per hadees quoted by AbuHurraira, Prophet(sas) said-A man might perform actions of righteous people for seventy years but when it is time to compile his will commits injustice and because of this he enters the Fire. Similarly a man might perform ill deeds for seventy years but leaves a fair will and thus enters paradise.
Property however small should be divided and given to heirs. The whole property belongs to Allah and it should be divided as per His rules. But man has a strange feeling that it is earned by them, but actually it is given by Allah. Just imagine Allah takes away one’s life before he earns any property, or Allah makes him handicapped or makes huge losses to him through calamities then where is your wealth, money or property? We never think of the blessings from Allah. We never thank Him. We try to find some means to escape from giving the property to relatives. Be grateful to Him for the blessings and distribute the property as per His rules.
Property division is based on family ties.
In Islam property division is not based on who is poor or rich, but it is based on blood relations and family ties. Even a rich relative of a poor man as per Islam should get the property if he is eligible. This family system is completely lost these days.
Educate the people.
Our responsibility is to teach the people as per the Prophet’s(s.a.s) command. Teach it to the people and do your job. If anybody disobeys and plays false in property division he will bear the punishment as above.
Importance of learning the Islamic Laws of Inheritance
تَعَلَّمُوا الْفَرَائِضَ وَ عَلِّمُوهَا فَإنَّهُ نِصْفُ الْعِلْمِ وَهُوَ يُنْسَي وَهُوَ أوَّلُ شَيْئٍ يُنزَعُ مِنْ اُمَّتِي
Learn the laws of inheritance and teach it the people. It is one half of useful knowledge. It is going to be forgotten and it is the first one to be raised off from my people.
Reported from Abu Huraira r.a. Ibn maja
اَلْعِلْمُ ثَلاَثَةٌ وَمَا سِوَي ذَلِكَ فَهُوَ فَضْلٌ, آيَةٌ مُحْكَمَةٌ أوْ سُنَّةٌ قَائِمَةٌ أوْ فَرِيضَةٌ عَادِلَةٌ
Useful knowledge are three in number. Quranic verses, Prophet’s sunnah, law of inheritance
Ibn Ummer reports- Ibn Maja, abu Dawood
تَعَلَّمُوا الْقُرْآنَ وَعَلِّمْهُ النَّاسَ وَ تَعَلَّمُوا الْفَرَائِضَ وَ عَلِّمُوهَا فَإنّي اِمْرُؤٌ مَقْبُوضٌ وَالْعِلْمُ مَرْفُوعٌ وَ يُوشِكُ أنْ يَخْتَلِفَ اِسْمَانِ فِي فَرِيضَةٍ وَالْمَسْألَةِ فَلاَ يَجِدَانِ اَحَدًا يُخْبِرُهُمَا
Learn the Quran and teach it to the people. Learn the laws of inheritance and teach it to the people. I am a human being who is going to die and the knowledge will disappear. A time may come when two people will argue about the property distribution and no one may be there to answer their problems.
Prophet(S.A.S) Ibn Mas’ud reports(Ahmed)
In the chapter 4 Sura –al Nisa’a
Verses starting from 7 to 14 and verse 176 deal with the inheritance rules
Study with meaning and by heart them.
لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصيِبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالأَقْرَبُونَ وَلِلنِّسَاء نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالأَقْرَبُونَ مِمَّا قَلَّ مِنْهُ أَوْ كَثُرَ نَصِيباً مَّفْرُوضاً
There is a share for men from what is left by parents and those nearest related, and there is share for women from what is left by parents and nearest related, whether the property be small or large, a decided share
وَإِذَا حَضَرَ الْقِسْمَةَ أُوْلُواْ الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينُ فَارْزُقُوهُم مِّنْهُ وَقُولُواْ لَهُمْ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفًا
But if at the time of division of the property, other relatives , orphans or poor are present feed them out of the property and speak to them words of kindness and justice
يُوصِيكُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِىٓ أَوۡلَـٰدِڪُمۡۖ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثۡلُ حَظِّ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِۚ فَإِن كُنَّ نِسَآءً۬ فَوۡقَ ٱثۡنَتَيۡنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَۖ وَإِن كَانَتۡ وَٲحِدَةً۬ فَلَهَا ٱلنِّصۡفُۚ وَلِأَبَوَيۡهِ لِكُلِّ وَٲحِدٍ۬ مِّنۡہُمَا ٱلسُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِن كَانَ لَهُ ۥ وَلَدٌ۬ۚ فَإِن لَّمۡ يَكُن لَّهُ ۥ وَلَدٌ۬ وَوَرِثَهُ ۥۤ أَبَوَاهُ فَلِأُمِّهِ ٱلثُّلُثُۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُ ۥۤ إِخۡوَةٌ۬ فَلِأُمِّهِ ٱلسُّدُسُۚ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ وَصِيَّةٍ۬ يُوصِى بِہَآ أَوۡ دَيۡنٍۗ ءَابَآؤُكُمۡ وَأَبۡنَآؤُكُمۡ لَا تَدۡرُونَ أَيُّهُمۡ أَقۡرَبُ لَكُمۡ نَفۡعً۬اۚ فَرِيضَةً۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمً۬ا (١١)
Allâh commands you as regards your children's (inheritance); to the male, a portion equal to that of two females; if (there are) only daughters, two or more, their share is two thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is half. For parents, a sixth share of inheritance to each if the deceased left children; if no children, and the parents are the (only) heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased left brothers or (sisters), the mother has a sixth. (The distribution in all cases is) after the payment of legacies he may have bequeathed or debts. You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to you in benefit, (these fixed shares) are ordained by Allâh. And Allâh is Ever All¬Knower, All¬Wise.
۞ وَلَڪُمۡ نِصۡفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزۡوَٲجُڪُمۡ إِن لَّمۡ يَكُن لَّهُنَّ وَلَدٌ۬ۚ فَإِن ڪَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ۬ فَلَڪُمُ ٱلرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَڪۡنَۚ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ وَصِيَّةٍ۬ يُوصِينَ بِهَآ أَوۡ دَيۡنٍ۬ۚ وَلَهُنَّ ٱلرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكۡتُمۡ إِن لَّمۡ يَڪُن لَّكُمۡ وَلَدٌ۬ۚ فَإِن ڪَانَ لَڪُمۡ وَلَدٌ۬ فَلَهُنَّ ٱلثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَڪۡتُمۚ مِّنۢ بَعۡدِ وَصِيَّةٍ۬ تُوصُونَ بِهَآ أَوۡ دَيۡنٍ۬ۗ وَإِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ۬ يُورَثُ ڪَلَـٰلَةً أَوِ ٱمۡرَأَةٌ۬ وَلَهُ ۥۤ أَخٌ أَوۡ أُخۡتٌ۬ فَلِكُلِّ وَٲحِدٍ۬ مِّنۡهُمَا ٱلسُّدُسُۚ فَإِن ڪَانُوٓاْ أَڪۡثَرَ مِن ذَٲلِكَ فَهُمۡ شُرَڪَآءُ فِى ٱلثُّلُثِۚ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ وَصِيَّةٍ۬ يُوصَىٰ بِہَآ أَوۡ دَيۡنٍ غَيۡرَ مُضَآرٍّ۬ۚ وَصِيَّةً۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ۬ (١٢)
In that which your wives leave, your share is a half if they have no child; but if they leave a child, you get a fourth of that which they leave after payment of legacies that they may have bequeathed or debts. In that which you leave, their (your wives) share is a fourth if you leave no child; but if you leave a child, they get an eighth of that which you leave after payment of legacies that you may have bequeathed or debts. If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question has left neither ascendants nor descendants, but has left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third; after payment of lagacies he (or she) may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused (to anyone). This is a Commandment from Allâh; and Allâh is Ever All¬Knowing, Most¬Forbearing.
تِلۡكَ حُدُودُ ٱللَّهِۚ وَمَن يُطِعِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ يُدۡخِلۡهُ جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهَاۚ وَذَٲلِكَ ٱلۡفَوۡزُ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ (١٣)
These are the limits (set by) Allâh (or ordainments as regards laws of inheritance), and whosoever obeys Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW) will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), to abide therein, and that will be the great success.
وَمَن يَعۡصِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ ۥ يُدۡخِلۡهُ نَارًا خَـٰلِدً۬ا فِيهَا وَلَهُ ۥ عَذَابٌ۬ مُّهِينٌ۬ (١٤)
And whosoever disobeys Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and transgresses His limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment.
يَسۡتَفۡتُونَكَ قُلِ ٱللَّهُ يُفۡتِيڪُمۡ فِى ٱلۡكَلَـٰلَةِۚ إِنِ ٱمۡرُؤٌاْ هَلَكَ لَيۡسَ لَهُ ۥ وَلَدٌ۬ وَلَهُ ۥۤ أُخۡتٌ۬ فَلَهَا نِصۡفُ مَا تَرَكَۚ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَآ إِن لَّمۡ يَكُن لَّهَا وَلَدٌ۬ۚ فَإِن كَانَتَا ٱثۡنَتَيۡنِ فَلَهُمَا ٱلثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَۚ وَإِن كَانُوٓاْ إِخۡوَةً۬ رِّجَالاً۬ وَنِسَآءً۬ فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثۡلُ حَظِّ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِۗ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَڪُمۡ أَن تَضِلُّواْۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَلِيمُۢ (١٧٦)
They ask you for a legal verdict. Say: "Allâh directs (thus) about Al¬Kalâlah (those who leave neither descendants nor ascendants as heirs). If it is a man that dies, leaving a sister, but no child, she shall have half the inheritance. If (such a deceased was) a woman, who left no child, her brother takes her inheritance. If there are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance; if there are brothers and sisters, the male will have twice the share of the female. (Thus) does Allâh makes clear to you (His Law) lest you go astray. And Allâh is the All-Knower of everything."
Sura a-nnisa-176Go to Lesson 2 - General Things >>